The RAD LA-210 EFM SHDSL Box

Overview and description (Commonly Used By TalkTalk Business EFM)

When you order an EFM connection you are sent an RAD EtherAccess LA-210 unit to be installed on your premises. This is referred to as the Network Termination Equipment (NTE) or occasionally the RAD box.rad efm 3

The purpose of the NTE is to ‘bond’ the multiple lines that are used on an EFM connection into one line. There are Ethernet ports on the rear of the NTE that allow you to plug your own equipment (such as a router) in.

It’s important to realise that the LA-210 is not a router, and it is up to you to either configure your network to use the EFM connection, or purchase the optional router.

Because this RAD Box bonds 2 wire telephone lines (up to a total of 4 lines or 8 wires) together the effect is that you get an Eithernet cable/network cable that you can then plug in to your own kit

Some providers then have there own routers like Cisco, ZyXEL, and junipers connected to this box and can offer a whole range of services like VoIP, Data, CCTV etc.

Some providers also route your traffic directly in to there data centers, creating a private connection between you and the data center. This is usful for centrally managing internet connections and access, or to enable you to have a central hosted VoIP PBX in the cloud and connect all your phones to it.

Rear of the LA-210

The LA-210 provides four RJ-45 ethernet ports that the you can plug your own equipment into. These are on the far right of the picture below.

The two RJ-45 ports to the left are intended to accept the bonded copper lines. You should not need to touch these, and no other equipment should be plugged in here.

LA210_rear

Front of the LA-210

The front of the LA-210 includes LED lights that can indicate the state of the unit and the connection.

Please note when reading the table below that the indicated status of the WAN light will vary depending on whether your EFM circuit is a two-pair or four-pair installation.

LA210_front

LED/Name

Function

TXT (Yellow)

On: A test is active
Off: A test is inactive

ALM (RED)

On: A new alarm is detected in the alarm buffer
Off: No alarm currently detected

WAN (SHDSL SYNC – green/red/orange)

Blinking (green/red): At least one line is synchronized and at
least one line is trying to synchronize.
On (orange): At least one line is synchronized. All other lines
are unsynchronized and are not trying to synchronize.
On (green): All lines are synchronized
Blinking (red): No lines are synchronized. At least one line is
trying to synchronize.
On (red): No lines are synchronized

LAN (LINK/ACT – green)

On (green): Ethernet link is up
Off: Ethernet link is down

E1

On (green): E1 link is up
Off: E1 link is down

RTS

On (green): RTS has been received
Off: RTS has not been received or serial port is
administratively disabled

FUN Stuff – Accessing the Config

FOLLOW THE BELOW AT YOUR OWN RISK!!! – I TAKE NO RESPONSIBILITY!!
THE BELOW IS FOR INFORMATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY!!

Now that we know what the RAD box is and does. Lets see if we can have some fun with it.

If you have had an EFM service installed by TTB then, you should be able to access the config on the RAD box. You simply need a USB to Serial adaptor.

Open Hyper terminal or putty and use the rate of 9600 on your com port, open the connection, then press enter a few times. you should see a prompt like the below:

 Loading ...
Decompressing to RAM.

Processing archive: FLASH
Extracting LA_210.BIN ................................................................................................................................................................................................... CRC OK
Running ...
*******************************************************************
* In order to start working - press the ENTER button for few times*




user>

Enter the user name “su” and password “1234

user>su
password>****


TEST#

if you type “info detail“, you will see the whole config of the RAD unit.

if you have a spare one or ha accuired it from someplease, then you can reconfigure it.

below i have listed a very simple config that you can copy and paste in to a factory reset unit.

to factory reset the box type “admin” <Prese enter> type “factory reset

this shows you the simple syntax the RAD box uses and configures it with some simple test stuff

 configure 
 router 1
 interface 1
 address 192.168.1.125/24
 management-access
 no shutdown
 exit
 default-gateway address 192.168.1.1
 exit

 management 
 manager 192.168.1.10
 exit
 user su password password
 user oper password password
 user tech password password
 user user password password
 exit

 system date-and-time
 sntp server 1 address 8.8.8.8
 zone gmt
 exit
 exit

 system
 name TEST
 contact "Bob The Builder"
 location "My Comms Room"
 exit

exit all
save
save

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ZyXEL Point-to-Point Link

ZyXEL Point-to-Point Link

zyxel_782r_modem

Overview

By using two (now inexpensive) ZyXEL SDSL (Symmetric DSL) modems it is possible to set up an IP link between two locations with noting more than a single copper pair. I’ve used two ZyXEL Prestige 782R G.SHDSL Routers which can be obtained cheaply on places like Ebay. The link speed is symetrical 2.3 Mbps.

The first stage is to get at theserial console. I’ve used a no-name USB to serial adapter. The default settings of the dvice are 9600,8N1. Connect up the serial cable and get a console (I’ll not go into that here – if you need help with that then the rest of this how-to will be of little use (sorry). When you have a working console, turn the device on and you’ll see:Bootbase Version: V2.07 | 3/15/2002 14:29:16
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 8192K OK
FLASH: Intel 8M *2ZyNOS Version: V2.50(BH.4) | 8/6/2002 10:56:21

Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
……………………………………………………

After that you’ll see:

Copyright (c) 1994 – 2002 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize ch =0, ethernet address: 00:a0:c5:c0:ff:ee
Wan Channel init ………… done
Press ENTER to continue…

At this point press enter to get a password prompt. If you have “aquired” the device then it’s likely the password will have been changed from the default “1234” (after all everyone changes the default password 😉 ). If the password fails then you need to upload a new default configuration file (sometimes called a ROM). I have mirrored it. You need to dowload 250BH4C0.rom. Your terminal software needs to be able to do XMODEM. To flash the modem firstly get to the debug console – press Enter as it boots:

Bootbase Version: V2.07 | 3/15/2002 14:29:16
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 8192K OK
FLASH: Intel 8M *2

ZyNOS Version: V2.50(BH.4) | 8/6/2002 10:56:21

Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
……….
Enter Debug Mode

 

Next get the modem ready for receiving the upload by typing ‘ATLC’:

ATLC
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)….
CC

Next use your terminal client to upload the file in XMODEM mode (I have use Minicom):

Welcome to minicom 2.6.1

OPTIONS: I18n
Compiled on Feb 11 2012, 18:56:01.
Port /dev/ttyUSB0
+———–[xmodem upload – Press CTRL-C to quit]————+
Press CTR|Sending 250BH4.bin, 8693 blocks: Give your local XMODEM recei|
|ve command now. |
|Bytes Sent: 16384 BPS:874 |
Bootbase | |
RAM: Size|Transfer complete |
DRAM POST| |
FLASH: In| READY: press any key to continue… |
+————————————————————-+
ZyNOS Version: V2.50(BH.4) | 8/6/2002 10:56:21

Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
……..
Enter Debug Mode
ATLC
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)….
C
Total 16384 bytes received.

Erasing..
….
OK

As you have go this far you may as well upgrade to the latest v2.50(BH.4) if your not at it, by repeating the above but with the 250BH4.bin. This time use the ‘ATUR’ command.

At this point you should have two modems, running v2.50(BH.4).

Configuration

The next step is to configure the modems to act as a bridge.i Label the modems ‘local’ and ‘remote’. We’ll configure the ‘local’ modem first. Connect to the console, and enter the password ‘1234’ to get to the main menu:Copyright (c) 1994 – 2002 ZyXEL Communications Corp.

Prestige 782R Main Menu

Getting Started Advanced Management
1. General Setup 21. Filter Set Configuration
2. WAN Setup 22. SNMP Configuration
3. Ethernet Setup 23. System Password
4. Internet Access Setup 24. System Maintenance
25. IP Routing Policy Setup
Advanced Applications
11. Remote Node Setup
12. Static Routing Setup
15. SUA Server Setup 99. Exit

Enter Menu Selection Number:

 

Firstly, change the system name to ‘local’, feel free to fill in location and contact person. Disable ‘Route IP’ and ‘Route IPX’ and enable ‘Bridge’:

Menu 1 – General Setup

System Name= local
Location= Close to me
Contact Person’s Name= Andrew

Route IP= No
Route IPX= No
Bridge= Yes

Under menu 2, change ‘Service Type’ to ‘Server’ and ‘Transfer Max Rate(Kbps)’ to ‘2312K’ and ‘Transfer Min Rate(Kbps)’ to ‘136K’:

Menu 2 – WAN Setup

Service Type= Server
Rate Adaption= Enable
Transfer Max Rate(Kbps)= 2312K
Transfer Min Rate(Kbps)= 136K
Standard Mode= ETSI(ANNEX_B)

 

Under menu 3, choose menu 2. In this menu set ‘DHCP’ to ‘None’. Set ‘IP Address’ to ‘192.168.1.100’ (change this of course if you need to):

Menu 3.2 – TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup

DHCP Setup
DHCP= None
Client IP Pool Starting Address= N/A
Size of Client IP Pool= N/A
Primary DNS Server= N/A
Secondary DNS Server= N/A
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.100
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No

 

Under menu 11, choose menu 1. Chnage ‘Route’ to ‘None’ and ‘Bridge’ to ‘Yes’. You can give it a better name than ‘ChangeMe’ if you wish:

Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile

Rem Node Name= ChangeMe Route= None
Active= Yes Bridge= Yes

Encapsulation= RFC 1483 Edit PPP Options= N/A
Multiplexing= LLC-based Rem IP Addr= N/A
Incoming: Edit IP/IPX/Bridge= No
Rem Login= N/A Edit ATM Options= No
Rem Password= N/A
Outgoing: Session Options:
My Login= N/A Edit Filter Sets= No
My Password= N/A PPPoE Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Authen= N/A PPPoE Service Name= N/A

That is all that is needed for the local modem. You can of course go into menu 23 and change the password 😉 For the remote, again connect up the serial console and get to the main menu. Again go into menu 1 and change the system name to ‘remote’, Disable ‘Route IP’ and ‘Route IPX’ ensure ‘Bridge’ is also set to No:

Menu 1 – General Setup

System Name= remote
Location= Far away from me
Contact Person’s Name= Andrew

Route IP= No
Route IPX= No
Bridge= No

Next in menu 2 ensure ‘Service Type’ is set to ‘Client’ and ‘Transfer Max Rate(Kbps)’ to ‘2312K’ and ‘Transfer Min Rate(Kbps)’ to ‘136K’:

Menu 2 – WAN Setup

Service Type= Client
Rate Adaption= Enable
Transfer Max Rate(Kbps)= 2312K
Transfer Min Rate(Kbps)= 136K
Standard Mode= ETSI(ANNEX_B)

 

Next in menu 3, choose menu 2, set ‘DHCP’ to ‘None’. Set ‘IP Address’ to ‘192.168.1.101’ (again change this of course if you need to):

Menu 3.2 – TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup

DHCP Setup
DHCP= None
Client IP Pool Starting Address= N/A
Size of Client IP Pool= N/A
Primary DNS Server= N/A
Secondary DNS Server= N/A
Remote DHCP Server= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.101
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
IP Policies=
Edit IP Alias= No

 

Finally, Under menu 11, choose menu 1. Chnage ‘Route’ to ‘None’ and ‘Bridge’ to ‘Yes’. You can give it a better name than ‘ChangeMe’ if you wish:

Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile

Rem Node Name= ChangeMe Route= None
Active= Yes Bridge= Yes

Encapsulation= RFC 1483 Edit PPP Options= N/A
Multiplexing= LLC-based Rem IP Addr= N/A
Incoming: Edit IP/IPX/Bridge= No
Rem Login= N/A Edit ATM Options= No
Rem Password= N/A

Outgoing: Session Options:
My Login= N/A Edit Filter Sets= No
My Password= N/A PPPoE Idle Timeout(sec)= N/A
Authen= N/A PPPoE Service Name= N/A

That should be it, connect a cable between the two xDSL sockets, power cycle both and wait for the xDSL lights to come on (~60 seconds). Connect the ‘local’ modems ‘Lan 10/100M’ socket to your network, the ‘remote’ modems LAN socket should now be just an extension of your network. Note:The IP address of both modems (192.168.1.100 and 192.168.1.101 in the example above) will not be pingable, but the modems will transparently transit traffic.

 

Credit : Andrew @ https://www.fermit.org.uk/quickies/zyxel_point_to_point_link.html

Connecting

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NGINX: Simple Load Balancing

Simple Load Balancing

nginx.conf

http {
  upstream myproject {
    server 127.0.0.1:8000 weight=3;
    server 127.0.0.1:8001;
    server 127.0.0.1:8002;
    server 127.0.0.1:8003;
  }

  server {
    listen 80;
    server_name www.domain.com;
    location / {
      proxy_pass http://myproject;
    }
  }
}

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NGINX: Server Block Examples

Server Block Examples

Note: “VirtualHost” is an Apache term. NGINX does not have Virtual hosts, it has “Server Blocks” that use the server_name and listen directives to bind to tcp sockets.

Two Server Blocks, Serving Static Files

http {
  index index.html;

  server {
    server_name www.domain1.com;
    access_log logs/domain1.access.log main;

    root /var/www/domain1.com/htdocs;
  }

  server {
    server_name www.domain2.com;
    access_log  logs/domain2.access.log main;

    root /var/www/domain2.com/htdocs;
  }
}

A Default “Catch All” Server Block

http {
  index index.html;

  server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    server_name _; # This is just an invalid value which will never trigger on a real hostname.
    access_log logs/default.access.log main;

    server_name_in_redirect off;

    root  /var/www/default/htdocs;
  }
}

Wildcard Subdomains in a Parent Folder

This is just a really easy way to keep adding new subdomains, or to add new domains automatically when DNS records are pointed at the server. Note that I have included FCGI here as well. If you want to just serve static files, strip out the FCGI config and change the default document to index.html. Rather than creating a new vhost.conf file for every domain, just create one of these:

server {
  # Replace this port with the right one for your requirements
  listen 80 default_server;  #could also be 1.2.3.4:80

  # Multiple hostnames separated by spaces.  Replace these as well.
  server_name star.yourdomain.com *.yourdomain.com; # Alternately: _

  root /PATH/TO/WEBROOT;

  error_page 404 errors/404.html;
  access_log logs/star.yourdomain.com.access.log;

  index index.php index.html index.htm;

  # static file 404's aren't logged and expires header is set to maximum age
  location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|gif|css|png|js|ico|html)$ {
    access_log off;
    expires max;
  }

  location ~ \.php$ {
    include fastcgi_params;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    # By all means use a different server for the fcgi processes if you need to
    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:YOURFCGIPORTHERE;
  }

  location ~ /\.ht {
    deny  all;
  }
}

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VyOS/Vyatta GRE Encrypted Tunnels

Setting up an Encrypted GRE Tunnel between 2 sites.

Set up the IPSEC stuff first.

edit vpn ipsec site-to-site peer <>
set authentication mode pre-shared-secret
set authentication pre-shared-secret dflkgajdksdlgkltijwlelsdngslk
set connection-type initiate
set ike-group IKE-GRE
set local-address <>
set tunnel 0 allow-nat-networks disable
set tunnel 0 allow-public-networks disable
set tunnel 0 esp-group ESP-GRE
set tunnel 0 local prefix <>/32
set tunnel 0 remote prefix <>/32
top
commit; save

Setting up the tunnel interface

edit interfaces tunnel tun0
set address 172.16.100.22/30
set encapsulation gre
set local-ip <>
set remote-ip <>
top
commit; save

Setting up static Routes over the tunnel as required.

set protocols static route 10.10.10.0/24 next-hop 172.16.100.21
commit; save

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